Frame 110, Page 182 - Explanation for 1a, 1b, 1c, 2a, 2b, 2c

I cannot perfectly understand the difference between 1a-1b-1c, 2a-2b-2c and 1c-2c. Could you explain the difference by examples?

ANSWER:

There's an error in the table in Frame 110. Row 1(c) should not be there. There should just be 1(a) and 1(b).

As for explanations and examples, please see the following frames for the corresponding row:

1(a) - Frames 117, 118, 113-116
1(b) - Frames 121, 119-120

2(a) - Frames 126, 122-125
2(b) - Frames 132, 133, 127-131
2(c) - Frames 150, 148-149

I hope this helps.

Work hard and be successful,

Professor iEnglish

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Frame 120, Page 162 - Why is 'in addition' not included in the answer?

In the previous frame the answer can be a, b and c, but in this frame a cannot be answer. Why is this? In frame 121, it is said that 'in addition' is not often used in the support of an argument. If this is the reason for the question, then how can I differentiate whether it is argument or not?

ANSWER:

The reason that "in addition" is not included in the answer is that it is usually used to add additional or supporting information for a main idea. "Furthermore" and "moreover," on the other hand, are used more often than "in addition" to provide supporting details for a supporting idea that is supporting a main idea.

For instance, in frame 120, the main idea of this passage is about canned foods. This main idea is supported by two statements: (i) It is found in almost every modern household. (ii) People use them them for two reasons--(a) they are easy to maintain and convenient to use; (b) they retain their flavour over a relatively long period of time.

The last statement, that canned food retain their flavour over a long period of time, is supporting a supporting idea. In situations like this, "furthermore" or "moreover" is used more often than "in addition."

In frame 119, we have just the main idea and a supporting idea for the main idea. There isn't further support for the supporting idea. In situations like this, any one of the three conjunctive items are frequently used.

However, this aspect of usage is not explained in frame 121, so I think the explanations in frame 121 need to be revised.

One other thing that may be helpful for you to know is that these pages are meant to describe how native speakers of English most commonly use conjunctive adverbs. There are no hard-and-fast rules, for example, in the choice between "in addition" and "furthermore."

Native speakers usually make their choices based on their intuition or 'feel' for the text. If you want to develop that kind of 'feel' for English you have to have had a lot of exposure to English, which English learners in non-English speaking countries usually don't have.

Therefore, the explanations in these pages about conjunctive adverbs are meant to help you make some choices in the absence of that 'feeling' or intuition--but you must understand that they are not strict rules that must always be followed all the time.

Work hard and be successful,

Professor iEnglish

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Frame 128, Page 146 - Informal vs Formal

In frame 133, it is said that 'still' is informal. I cannot tell whether the sentence is formal or informal. How can I distinguish them?

ANSWER:

"Still" is not informal; it is less formal than "nevertheless/nonetheless."

When you must decide whether or not to use "still," consider your situation.

Are you writing an academic paper or essay for your professor? If so, use "nevertheless" or "nonetheless."

Are you writing an e-mail to a foreigner friend? If so, feel free to use "still."

I hope this helps. If not, ask for further clarification by writing a comment.

Work hard and be successful,

Professor iEnglish

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Frame 130, Page 142 - Why is 'a' the only answer?

George finally came out of his coma; ____________, he had lost his ability to speak.

Why cannot 'b' and 'c' be the answer? I think the sentence has a neutral ordering of information.

ANSWER:

You are thinking about what you're learning, very good!

However, consider what's happened to George. George came out of his coma. Is that good news or bad news?

I'm sure you can see that that is good news.

George lost his ability to speak. Is that good news or bad news?

Of course, it's bad news.

Therefore, you have a positive-to-negative ordering of information, and we do not use "nevertheless/nonetheless" in this situation.

Work hard and be successful,

Professor iEnglish



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Frame 131, Page 140 - Answer

Could you explain why the answer is a, b, c? I do not understand.

ANSWER:

The answer is (a), (b) and (c) because all of these adverbs are suitable in the blank of the example sentence.

(a) "However" is suitable because the neither of the two pieces of contrasting information are more positive or negative than the other. There is neutrality in the statements. (See frame 133.)

(b) "Nevertheless/nonetheless" is suitable because when there is neutrality in the two sides of the contrasting information, these adverbs can be used interchangeably with "however."

(c) "Still" is suitable because it may be used the same way as "nevertheless/nonetheless" when the writing situation is not too formal. This sentence could belong in either a formal or informal situation, and because all we have is the one sentence and no context, we don't have enough information to decide which.

I hope this helps.

Work hard and be successful,

Professor iEnglish

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Frame 140, Page 122 - Why are 'a' and 'c' not possible as answers?

In frame 140, I can't understand why 'a' and 'c' are wrong answers. I think they have the same meaning as 'therefore'.

ANSWER:

Yes, I understand that these three adverbs may all sound the same to you. However, they are not all used the same way. Study frames 135, 136 and 137, especially the expressions in bold.

Having said that, it's actually quite difficult to try to describe how these three adverbs are used differently by native speakers. Native speakers simply make their choices based on their intuition or 'feel' for the English language, and it can be difficult to try to explain why they would choose one adverb over another.

Nevertheless, they do. Native speakers often will judge for themselves that one adverb is a better 'fit' for the situation than another. The meanings are similar, but one adverb can feel like a better fit than another.

For non-native speakers of English like yourselves, making choices based on intuition is not possible unless you have had enough exposure to English to develop a strong 'feel' for English.

These pages are designed to help provide some clues as to when some adverbs may be more preferable over others.

Work hard and be successful,

Professor iEnglish

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