Frame 109, Page 184 - Answer

It says that the answer for 3 is 'sometimes, sometimes'. However, I think the answer is 'sometimes, never'. Is this wrong?

ANSWER:

You're reading and thinking carefully about what you are learning. Very good!

The entire sentence for (3) should read like this:

This also means that there is sometimes a comma in front of which, and sometimes there is not (a comma in front of which).

I think the words in parentheses may help to clarify the meaning of the sentence.

I hope this helps.

Work hard and be successful,

Professor iEnglish

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Frame 112, Page 178 - The difference between restrictive and non-restrictive clauses (Part 1)

Answer is 'b' for this frame, but I think that 'a' is not wrong either. Am I wrong?

ANSWER:

Sentence (a) suggests that there are more than one type of elephant trunks. It is saying that the particular type of elephant trunk that we are talking about is the one that has 40,000 muscles in it.

However, this doesn't make sense, does it? Of course, there is only one kind of elephant trunk. It is the elephant trunk.

What the restrictive adjective clause does is it specifies the kind of thing that we're referring to. It restricts the meaning of a particular noun item to one specific one out of other possibilities.

(The restrictive adjective clause is the one without the comma, and which usually begins with "that," but which can also begin with "which.")

On the other hand, the non-restrictive clause does not have that defining, restrictive action. It is often used where strict definition of a noun item is not required, either because the noun item represents only one of its kind, or any one of its kind serves the meaning of the sentence equally well.

I hope this helps,

Work hard and be successful,

Professor iEnglish

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Frame 121, Page 160 - The difference between the restrictive and non-restrictive clause (Part 2)

Is it wrong to write 'The Antpitta which barks instead of sings is a bird.'?

ANSWER:

Again, your sentence here would suggest that there are more than one type of the Antpitta, the kind that barks instead of sings.

However, all Antpitta birds bark.

Let's examine the answer in the book, now:

The Antpitta is a bird that/which barks instead of sings.

Here, we are saying that the Antpitta is one kind of bird, the kind that barks instead of sings.

Can you see the big difference in meaning between your answer and the answer in the book?

Work hard and be successful,

Professor iEnglish


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Frame 138, Page 126 - "himself"

"Before his execution, Valentine himself had fallen ~."

Why is 'himself' inserted between subject and verb phrase? What does it mean in this sentence?

ANSWER:

"Himself" is there for emphasis.

You read in the previous frame that Valentine was a priest who was executed for performing marriage ceremonies secretly. He must have been a romantic, believing that those who loved each other ought to be allowed to marry, even though, as a priest, he wasn't allowed to get married.

Then, while in jail, the priest himself had fallen in love.

Can you see the value of the emphasis provided by the word "himself"?

Work hard and be successful,

Professor iEnglish

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