Frame 30, Page 59 - M1 and M2


(1) How can I distinguish between M1 and M2?

(2) Are there any other uses of the present simple tense besides M1, M2?


ANSWERS:

Question (1)

The two meanings, M1 and M2, do often overlap, because repeated actions are also in themselves factual. (See the footnote in frame 30.)

However, one way to help distinguish between M1 and M2 is to ask yourself whether there is an element of repeated action in the statement. If there is, then it wouldn't be wrong to identify M2 as the meaning that is closer. Most likely, though, where you have identified M2 as the closer meaning, you'll find M1 overlap, as well, in which case, the answer is "both."

I've noticed that in frame 31, the answer given for Question (d) is M2, but in that question, as well, there is M1 overlap, so both answers would be correct.

Don't get too stressed about the distinction between M1 and M2.

What's more important is that you simply understand when it is that you ought to use the present simple tense. Whether you're using the present simple for M1 or M2 makes no difference. The point is that you are using the present simple rather than, say, the present continuous, when stating either a general fact or repeated/habitual action.

Question (2)

Yes, there are other uses of the present simple tense besides M1 and M2. However, M1 and M2 are the most common for academic writing. (See the footnote in frame 16.)

To learn about other uses of the present simple tense visit the following Web pages, or search for the terms "present simple" and "uses" at a search engine like Google.com:

http://esl.fis.edu/grammar/rules/pressimp.htm

http://www.ego4u.com/en/cram-up/grammar/simple-present/use

Alternatively, consult a grammar reference book, e.g. Practical English Usage, by Michael Swan, or the Collins COBUILD English Grammar.

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Frame 34, Page 67 - How to know whether a sentence is "too strong"


(1) Why is the answer "c"?

(2) How do I distinguish whether a sentence is 'too strong' or not? It looks like all the three sentences are similar in nuance.

(3) Can "b" also be the answer?

ANSWERS:

Question (1)

The statement in (c) is a fact in that it may be considered to be true without the addition of adverbs. However, the statements in (a) and (b) cannot be considered facts in themselves. For instance, a puppy does not always sleep exactly 14 hours a day as stated in (a). Similarly, not all puppies are given away to new homes as stated in (b). Some owners prefer to keep their puppies. On the other hand, it is generally accepted among dog experts that a puppy can be considered an adult at the age of one year, as stated in (c).

Question (2)

Rather than trying to 'feel' the nuance, you must examine the hard facts that the statement is claiming. In academic writing, it's important to consider the factual nature of your statements or claims. In (a), without an adverb like "usually," the statement is claiming that all puppies always sleep for exactly 14 hours every day. Is that true? In (b), the statement is claiming that all puppies are always given away to new homes between the age of 7 and 12 weeks. Really? Is that true--always? Then, consider (c); it states that a puppy is considered an adult at the age of one year. Is that true?

When you can answer "Yes, it is true!" to a statement, then you do not have a statement that is too strong or exaggerated.

Question (3)

By itself, no, not really--it cannot be the answer. You need an adverb such as "usually," or you need additional sentences that help to provide the context for interpreting the statement as implying that an adverb like "usually" is there, even though it is not.

I hope this helps! Write me further questions about this frame if you still don't understand. Use the link below that says "Click here to post comments" and write me your questions in the comments.

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Frame 37, Page 73 - Why is the answer "both"?


Why is B's answer and C's answer "both"? I think "B" is just a people's misconception not a fact, and I think C's answer is M1 because the meaning of "C" is just fact. I think it's so complicated to select M1 (fact) or M2 (regular or habitual action), because these two meanings overlap.

ANSWER:

Yes, you're absolutely right--The meanings do overlap and it can be difficult to distinguish between the two.

The answer for both (b) and (c) is "both" because some people will see these statements as 'fact' and some will see them as containing an element of repeated action. The answer "both" means that you are correct if you answered "M1," and you are also correct if you answered "M2." In other words, there are no wrong answers for these questions.

More important than trying to distinguish between these two meanings is simply understanding that it is the present simple tense that you use in either of these cases, rather than, say, the present continuous tense. So don't worry too much about the distinction between M1 and M2. Instead, use this information to remember that you ought to be using the present simple tense when you are writing about a fact or a repeated, habitual action.

I hope this helps! Use the link below that says "Click here to post comments" to ask more questions about this frame if you would like further explanation.

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Frame 45, Page 89 - The present continuous passive


In the first blank, why does "being" have to be inserted between "are" and "taken"? Although it is in the passive voice, isn't it okay if we just write "are taken"?

ANSWER:

The answer must include the auxiliary verb "being" because the question specifies the present continuous tense in the verb phrase--i.e. 1. take, present continuous, passive voice.

In additon, the meaning of the present continuous passive (i.e. are being taken) is not the same as the meaning of the present simple passive (i.e. are taken). As you read and review Lesson 3: Present Continuous I, reflect on this difference in meaning. I'm sure that you will come to understand it.

If you have tried and still don't understand the difference in meaning between the present continuous passive and the present simple passive after reading and reviewing Lesson 3, then use the link below that says "Click here to post comments" to ask me further about this difference.

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Frame 48, Page 95 - The public 'is' or 'are'?


For (2), should we always say "the public is," not "the public are," or can both be used?

ANSWER:

The word "public" is what we call a variable noun and may be treated as a singular or plural noun. It all depends on whether the speaker or writer intends to convey "public" as a single group or as members within the group.

In (2), the meaning involves a view of "public" as being a single group--i.e. the "public" (as a group) is being bombarded with propaganda.

Now, consider this example:

Switzerland has developed a health care system that the public are happy with.

In the above example, we can see that the view of "public" is one of many members within the group--i.e. a health care system that (people/members of) the public are happy with.

I hope this helps! Use the link below that says "Click here to post comments" to write me more questions about this frame if you require further explanation.

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