Frame 15, Page 29 - Object in (c)

Where is the object in (c)?

(c) In one of his quatrains, Nostradamus referred to Louis Pasteur, the discoverer of the existence of microscopic germs, by the name "Pasteur."

ANSWER:

You are smart to point this out!

The answer here should be SV, not SVO.

"Referred to" is a phrasal verb and what follows the preposition "to" is what we call an object of the preposition. It's not an object of the verb "refer."

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Professor iEnglish

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Frame 17, Page 33 - Regarding the object

Nostradamus enthusiasts credit him with having predicted numerous important events in world history.

In this sentence, according to the book, IO is 'him' and DO is 'with having~history.'

The object is always a noun or noun phrase, so can the prepositional phrase 'with having ~ history' act as noun phrase?

ANSWER:

Another smart question!

"Credit with" is a phrasal verb, so the answer should not include the preposition "with."

The direct object is the noun phrase that begins with the gerund "having."

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Professor iEnglish

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Frame 19, Page 37 - How many independent clauses?

Predictions are that hydrogen cars that combine solar and electricity sources are the future of transportation.

I think that there are two independent clauses and only one dependent clause. However, the answer is one independent clause and two dependent clauses. I cannot understand this.

Predictions are that ~. - Independent
Hydrogen cars are the future of transportation. - Independent
that combine solar and electricity sources. - Dependent

ANSWER:

Good! Having questions means that you are learning!

Independent clause:

(1) Predictions are (something--i.e. the rest of the sentence).


Dependent clauses:

(1) that hydrogen cars...are the future of transportation.

(2) that combine solar and electricity sources



I hope this helps to clarify the sentence for you.

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Professor iEnglish

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Frame 21, Page 41 - Difference between (a) and (b)

I don't understand what is different between 'a' and 'b'.

ANSWER:

The content is essentially the same between (a) and (b). It is comprised of three parts:

(1) the allies dropping the first bomb;

(2) the first bomb dropped on Berlin;

(3) the bomb killing the only elephant in the Berlin Zoo.

What is different is how the writer gives different emphases to these parts of the content.

For instance, the question in frame 21 asks which sentence, (a) or (b), treats the information in (3) as being more important than that in (2).

In (b) all of the information in (3) is found in the independent clause:

The first bomb...killed the only elephant in the Berlin Zoo.

Meanwhile, all of the information in (1) and (2) are put in the dependent clause:

that the Allies dropped on Berlin during World War II

This means that the writer of sentence (b) regards the information in (3) as more important than the information in (1) and (2).

Being able to identify the independent clause in this way in a complicated sentence helps you to identify the most important information in that sentence.

Knowing how to identify the independent clause of a sentence is a skill that is helpful for both academic reading and writing.

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Professor iEnglish

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Frame 34, Page 67 - Why is the answer "object"?

I don't know why the embedded noun clause in parentheses is the object of the independent clause.

ANSWER:

The verb "estimated" is used in an SVO clause pattern, e.g.

He estimated that something happens,

where "that something happens" is a clause functioning as an object.

In a passive clause, the object assumes the position of subject:

That something happens was estimated.

In a passive clause that begins with a dummy "it," the clause that would have been the subject becomes displaced:

It was estimated that something happens.

The very technical term for what we can call "that something happens" when it is displaced this way is extraposed subject.

However, for ease of explanation, it is just referred to, again, as object, for the purposes of this frame.

Ultimately, though, the best solution would be to change the example in this frame, so that the confusion can be avoided altogether.

You are thinking and growing in your understanding of the English language! Good job!

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Professor iEnglish



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Frame 40, Page 79 - Is sentence (a) grammatically wrong?

Is sentence (a) grammatically wrong or is it just matter of reading?

ANSWER:

Sentence (a) is grammatically correct. It's just more difficult to read than sentence (b), most would say.

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Frame 42, Page 83

Could I change the sentence into "What environmentalists fear is that..."?

If I do that, would the sentence be awkward compared with the sentence in the answer?

ANSWER:

Yes, you may rewrite the sentence to begin with "What environmentalists fear" as the subject, and no, it would not be an awkward sentence at all, and in some cases would be preferred over the sentence in the answer.

However, for the purposes of this frame, it cannot serve as the answer itself, because the that-clause does not get put in the object position if you start the sentence with "What environmentalists fear." Instead, the that-clause would assume the role of subject complement in a sentence with a SVC clause pattern.

I hope this answers your question.

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Professor iEnglish

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