Frames 59 and 60 - I don't understand these frames.

I cannot understand Frame 59 and 60.

Also, their question contains the phrase "the conjunction and." Is there any difference between a conjunction and conjunctive adverb?

ANSWER:

First of all, I think what you need to try to understand is the difference between a compound sentence and a compound predicate. The conjunction "and" is used in both.

Consider these examples:

1. Cape Town is the home of South Africa's Parliament, and it is the country's defacto legislative capital.

2. Cape Town is the home of South Africa's Parliament and is the country's defacto legislative capital.

In example (1), we have two clauses or two complete sets of subject and predicate. The two subjects are "Cape Town" and "it."

In example (2), we have just one clause or complete set of subject and predicate. The one subject is "Cape Town."

Example (1) is a compound sentence, and example (2) is a simple sentence with a compound predicate. A compound predicate has more than one verb phrase in it, all sharing the same subject.

Example (2) is the example that we have in Frame 59. That is why the answer for this frame is No.

If you look closely at the sentence in Frame 60, you'll also notice that, even though this sentence is more complicated, there is only one subject, and the verb phrases in the predicate all share this one subject, thus making the latter a compound predicate. That is why the answer for this frame is also No.

As to your next question about the difference conjunctions and conjunctive adverbs, the answer is YES! There is a big difference.

One difference is that there are two kinds of conjunctions, coordinating conjunctions (FANBOYS) and subordinating conjunctions (iEnglish 201, Frame 19).

Coordinating conjunctions can start independent clauses, but subordinating conjunctions can only start dependent clauses.

Conjunctive adverbs (e.g. then, however) are like coordinating conjunctions in that they can also start independent clauses. However, one big difference is that commas cannot be used when joining independent clauses into a compound sentence with conjunctive adverbs. Conjunctive adverbs can only form compound sentences with the semi-colon.

I hope this helps.

Work hard and be successful,

Professor iEnglish

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Frame 83, Page 165 - Questions about the semicolon

(1) What can replace the semicolon?

(2) What is the exact role of the semicolon? Does it replace just 'and' or does it have any more usages?

(3) Is there any special case when the first letter after the semicolon is capitalized?

(4) If using a conjunctive verb, why is the semicolon possible but the comma is not possible?

(5) What is the difference between the semicolon and comma?

(6) Do we have to use the semicolon when we use conjunctive adverbs?

(7) Is it okay if there is a coordination conjunction after semicolon?

ANSWER:

Terrific! These questions show that you are really thinking deeply about what you are learning! Bravo!

I'll answer your questions one-by-one:

(1) What can replace the semicolon?

I'm not sure what you mean by 'replace', exactly, but if you mean what other punctuation you can use instead of a semicolon, then the most common one is the period. You can 'replace' the semicolon with a period unless the semicolon is being used to separate items in a list. The first letter after the period, though, needs to be capitalized.

(2) What is the exact role of the semicolon? Does it replace just 'and' or does it have any more usages?

The semicolon has the effect of drawing two independent clauses into a closer relationship with one another than a period does. It is used when ideas are often so closely related that they could easily be joined to form a compound sentence using a coordinating conjunction.

The semicolon also has the effect of increasing the 'pace' of the compound sentence. Sometimes, the writing can have a slightly more dramatic or brisker feel when the semicolon is used instead of a comma plus coordinating conjunction.

Finally, the semicolon is preferred in academic writing when you want to start a new sentence with a coordinating conjunction, but you know that in academic writing, we try to avoid starting sentences with coordinating conjunctions. On the other hand, you don't want to use a comma with your coordinating conjunction, either. In that case, one thing you might consider doing is using a semicolon instead of the comma.

Understand, though, that the semicolon is a special kind of punctuation...and kind of like a spice. You don't want to use it all the time like salt and pepper.

(3) Is there any special case when the first letter after the semicolon is capitalized?

Yes. We always capitalize proper nouns, for instance. Therefore, when a proper noun follows a semicolon, the first letter is capitalized.

(4) If using a conjunctive adverb, why is the semicolon possible but the comma is not possible?

Why indeed. The best answer I can offer you is simply that conjunctive adverbs are adverbs, and adverbs are different from conjunctions in how they may be used within the English sentence.

(5) What is the difference between the semicolon and comma?

The main difference is that a conjunction, either coordinating or subordinating, does not have to be used with a semicolon. Two independent clauses that could otherwise be written as two separate sentences may be joined together with a semicolon without the addition of any other words. The only requirement is that the first letter after the semicolon must not be capitalized unless it is a proper noun.

(6) Do we have to use the semicolon when we use conjunctive adverbs?

No. You do not always have to use the semicolon when you use conjunctive adverbs. You may use a period, instead.

(7) Is it okay if there is a coordination conjunction after semicolon?

Yes!

Work hard and be successful,

Professor iEnglish

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Frame 84, Page 167 - Answer for previous frame

I think that answer for previous frame is wrong. What is answer for previous frame?

ANSWER:

Yes, there's a problem with that answer. It should be almost never.

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Frame 91, Page 181 - "however, because"

I cannot interpret this part, "however, because," so I do not understand that why the answer is correct. Why is the answer correct and is this sentence clear?

ANSWER:

Yes, I understand your confusion. It has to do with the adverb "however," I believe. The meaning of "however" is tied to the sentence about Friendship Day in the previous frame. Therefore, try interpreting the example text in this frame as a continuation of the text in the previous frame.

If that doesn't help, try omitting "however" and interpreting the sentence without it:

Controversy surrounds Friendship Day in India, because a week before the day of festivities, advertisers run extensive campaigns to lure people into buy cards and gifts for their friends.

The answer would then become: India; a

Now, you should be able to choose your answer to the Yes-No question, which is an opinion question.

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Frame 95, Page 189 - Why is (b) incorrect?

ANSWER:

The answer should be (a) not (b). Sentence (a) is incorrectly punctuated.

It's very good that you noticed this!

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Professor iEnglish

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